(This writing to complete final project)
“COMMON ERROR PRONUNCIATION
First of all, lets thanks to god (Allah SWT), because of God, the writer has done her assignment to complete final project of Linguistics subject with the title “Common Error Pronunciations in Public “. Then thanks to the lecturer, Mr. Dodi Oktariza, SS and friends that give support and helping to finish this assignment.
Writer knows that this assignment is not perfect. So, writer very hopes to reader to give some good critic or some good advice. Then, writer hopes there are advantages of this writing.
Muara Bungo, January 2011
CHAPTER I 4
a. Background 4
CHAPTER II 5
A. Elision 5
B. Assimilation 6
C. Common Error Pronunciation in Public 8
CHAPTER III 10
This writing used to give information about how to pronounce some words, especially English words, to improve our knowledge, and to complete my final project of linguistics subject.
In this writing, writer use observation method and library method. Observation method is writer observes or asks to object directly. Library method is writer reads books about linguistic, phonology, pronunciation, and elision.
There are many people make mistake to call something, it is mean their pronunciation. It related with elision whereas we must loose an alphabet or word to get the great pronunciation.
Key words that often I use in this writing are elision, consonants, vowels, and pronunciation.
Language is a communication tool. It used to communicate between people in the word. People cannot do anything without language even though it is only body language. Every country and everywhere has different language. It has own rule and characteristic. Therefore, some people learn to know about language. They research in many years.
So many rule and characteristic in every language. People agree that linguistics is a scientific. So, the scientific study of language is called by linguistics. Linguistic has some kinds of subject study. One of them is phonology. Phonology is study of sound system. It related with vowels, consonant, our organ of speech and how we pronounce about some words.
There are many victories in Indonesia, especially for factory that use English language for the name of their product. They think that their product will be more well-known if they use English language. In fact, the products become well-known not only because of the name, but also because of their quality and how the producer introduce their product to public. Some of them are cigarettes product. Especially cigarettes product that use English language for the name. for examples, ‘Class Mild’, ‘U Mild’, ‘A Mild’, and others. Some people pronounce ‘Mild’ with ‘mil’. Not only just for cigarettes product, but there are others product that have same mistake in pronunciation. Because of the problem above writer takes this title (Common Error Pronunciation in Public) for my research.
A. ELISION (losing sounds)
Elision is defined as the disappearance of sound. Elision is very simply the omission of certain sounds in certain contexts. The most important occurrences of this phenomenon regard:
Alveolar consonants /t/ and /d/ when ‘sandwiched’ between two consonants (CONS – t/d – CONS), e.g.
The next day…. /th@neksdei/
The last car… /th@la:s ka:/
Hold the dog! /h@ulth@dog/
Send Frank a card. Send Frank a card.
consonant + affricate elision
This can also take place within affricates /tS/ and /dZ/ when preceded by a consonant, e.g.
lunchtime /luntStaim/ è /lunStaim/
strange days /streindZ deIz/ è /streinZ deIz/
Elision of ‘not’
The phoneme /t/ is a fundamental part of the negative particle not, the possibility of it being elided makes the foreign students life more difficult. Consider the negative of can – if followed by a consonant the /t/ may easily disappear and the only difference between the positive and the negative is a different, longer vowel sound in the second:
+ I can speak…. /ai k@n spi:k/
- I can’t speak… /ai ka:nspi:k/
B. ASSIMILATION (changing sounds)
ASSIMILATION: This means
a) That a sound changes to be more like the following sound.
b) That two sounds join together to become another sound.
Assimilation is defined as the process of replacing sound by another sound under the influence of a third sound which is near to it in the word or sentence. This makes articulation easier. But notice that the change from one consonant sound to another should not interfere seriously with comprehension because the resulting sounds are quite similar to the original ones.
Assimilations are two chief kinds, historical and contextual. By a ‘historical assimilation’ we mean an assimilation which has taken place in the course of development of a language, and by which a word which was once pronounced in a certain way come to be pronounced subsequently in another way. By a ‘contextual assimilation’ we mean one which occasioned when words are juxtaposed in a sentence, or in the formation of compounds, and by which a words comes to have a pronunciation different from that which it has when said by itself.
Historical assimilation are conveniently described by means are tho following formulae: (for ordinary assimilations)n the sounds a has been replaced by the sound b under the influence of the sounds, (for coalescent assimilation) the sound a and c have influenced each other and coalesced unto the single sound b. thus in the two examples quoted in 839 the assimilations may be described thus: m has been replaced by n under the influence of t, t and j have influenced each other and have coalesced into the single sound t.
a. contextual assimilations may be described by the following formulae: (i) (for ordinary assimilations) the sound a is replaced the sound b under the influence of the sound c,(ii) (for coalescent assimilations) the sound a and c influence each other and coalesce 839a the assimilation may be described thus: s is replaced by under the influence of j, t and j influence each other and coalesce into the single sound tj
Assimilation of Place
The most common form involves the movement of place of articulation of the alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ to a position closer to that of the following sound.
For instance, in the phrase ten cars, the /n/ will usually be articulated in a velar position, /teN ka:z/ so that the tongue will be ready to produce the following velar sound /k/.
Similarly, in ten boys the /n/ will be produced in a bilabial position, /tem boIz/ to prepare for the articulation of the bilabial /b/.
BEFORE A VELAR (/k/, /g/)
/n/ è /ng/
e.g. bank = /baNk/
/d/ è /g/
e.g. good girl = /gug g3:l/
/t/ è /k/
e.g. that kid = /thak kid/
BEFORE A BILABIAL (/m/, /b/, /p/)
/n/ è /m/
e.g. ten men /tem men/
/d/ è /b/
e.g. bad boys /bab boiz/
/t/ è /p/
e.g. hot mushrooms /hop muSru:mz/
Assimilation of Voicing
The vibration of the vocal folds is not something that can be switched on and off very swiftly, as a result groups of consonants tend to be either all voiced or all voiceless. Consider the different endings of ‘dogs’ /dogz/ and ‘cats’ /kats/, of the past forms of the regular verbs such as ‘kissed’ /kist/ and ‘sneezed’ /sni:zd/.
The assimilation of voicing can radically change the sound of several common constructions:
have to /hav tu:/ /haft@/,
has to /haz tu:/ /hast@/
e.g. I have to go! /aihaft@ g@U/
used to /ju:zd tu:/ /ju:st@/
e.g. I used to live near you. /aiju:st@lIvni@ju:/
C. COMMON ERROR PRONUNCIATION IN PUBLIC
Common error pronunciation is error pronunciation or mistakes that often be done by some people. Some examples for these words: Class mild, A mild, lifebuoy, sprite, and others.
Common error pronunciation in public
Some people often say those word with common pronunciation that often said by public.
Class mild /klasmil/
U mild /umil/
The pronunciations above are false. The pronunciation of some nouns above related with elision. We can call it, losing word. Actually the people should say Sprite /sprait/
Class mild /kla:smaild/
U mild /’yumaild/
Sometimes public make mistake in pronunciation because of the behavior (they know the truth how to pronounce it) and sometimes public make mistake in pronunciation because of they do not anything (they know nothing about pronunciation).
Base on data in chapter II, the writer can take the conclusion that the people in public often make mistake in pronunciation, especially in English language. It related with elision and assimilation. They only say what the public say. Assimilation is defined as the process of replacing sound by another sound under the influence of a third sound which is near to it in the word or sentence (changing sound). Elision is defined as the disappearance of sound (losing sound).
The people in public need more communicative. The people who know the truth pronunciation will not do it correctly because they are afraid ‘the second’ people do not know what they want to. People will do that mistake again and again because they do not know anything about pronunciation. They do not care with pronunciation. They just need the second people know what they mean.
Jones, Daniel.ninth edition( An Outline of English Phonetic),1975(Combridge Universitty Press)