Jumat, 08 Juli 2011

THE FUNCTIONS OF PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE IN ENGLISH

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Remarks
When learning English language, it is so important to have understanding grammar. One area that requires understanding is the function of prepositional phrase. Prepositions are words that have just one possible form which introduces the object of prepositional phrase. Prepositional phrases can be used as modifier of other phrases, as complement of other phrases, and as nominal functions. A prepositional phrase indicated a relation between things mentioned in a sentence, another simpler term, a prepopsition is a prior explanation, typically found before a noun, pronoun, or substantives, that explain the noun, pronoun, or substantives. Somebody has to be able and be careful in using of prepositional phrase correcly because it effects in speaking and writing English.
As a resulr of careful thought, like the complexities of function of prepositional phrase in English, this topic is so important, interesting, and significant to be analyzed.

1.2 Reason For Choosing The Topic
The writer has some major reasons why the writer chooses this topic as the title or subject of her thesis. First, prepositional phrase has various functions that is so important to know. Secondly, there is no a complex explanation of prepositional phrase. Eventhough, there are some explanations about prepositional phrase in English, those are not enough, not complex, and not detail. The writer is going to make a clear describing and a detail explanation about that. So, this thesis will be so advantageous for the writer and the reader.
At the end, there is no student in this faculty has analyzed this topic, particularly as his or her thesis’ tittle or subject of his or her research.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of this thesis or this study is to give a clear expalanation and a best description of prepositional phrase in English. The writer explains and describes the functions of prepositional phrase in English by giving some examples. So that the reader will get a good explanation of this thesis. This thesis can be used aas a reference for somene who wants to learn more about prepositional phrase in English. In other hand this thesis is an information about prepositional phrase that is so useful to be read.
Finally, this thesis can be a big effect in English Grammar particularly, because it has various function in some ssentences. So, it will make the other students or researchers become interested and motivated to analyze some aspect in English.

1.4 Scope Of The Study
This study focuses on the description and explanation by giving examples of various functions of prepositional phrases in english. There are many kinds functions of prepositional phrases in English : as modifier of other phrases, as complement of other phrases, and as nominal functions.
The function of prepositional phrases as modifier of other phrases can be appeared in noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. Prepositional phrases as complement of other phrases can complement noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. Prepositional phrases function as nominal function : as a subject, as asubject complement, as a direct object, as an indirect object, as an object complement, and as a prepositional complement.

1.5 Method Of The Study
The writer uses library method as the method of her research. The writer get data from books that related with prepositional phrase in English. The information or the data that is gotten is written by various outstanding linguists. The explanation and the describing of tgose linguists have improved and completed this material as far as the theory that is needed in this study. The theory related to the defenition and the function of prepositional phrase in English are taken from Marcella Frank (1972) and the other explanations is adopted from Murdibjono & Arwijati Murdibjono (1990).
The data that is gotten by writer is corrected in several ways, such as the axplanation of the examples, checking and verifying the data based on the writer knowledge and also with theories from various linguists. So, this study will be a competence in English.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Notion
Prepositional phrse in commonly defined as s phrase that can modify noun as part of speech or noun combination and can give a complete sense of a sentence. Marcella Frank (1972) defines that the preposition + noun combination constitutes a prepositional phrase. Then Murdibjono & Arwijati Murdibjono (1990) give some explanation of prepositional phrase in English by giving some examples. In other hand, Kardjio gives some description of the function of prepositional phrase in English.
Prepositional phrase functions as modifiers of other phrases, as complements of other phrases, and as nominal functions. Examples of prepositional phrase in sentences with the explanation and the describing of functions as modifiers of other phrases, as complements of other phrases, and as nominal functions will be appeared and be given in the Chapter III.










CHAPTER III
THE FUNCTIONS OF PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
IN ENGLISH

In a sentence, prepositions show thw relation of one word to another word. Prepositions require an object to cemplete them, typically a noun or a pronoun. A preposition and its object is called propesitional phrase. Marcella Frank (1972) defines that “A prepositional signal that a noun or a noun structure follows it: the preposition + noun combinationconstitutes a prepositional phrase (He walked into the house). The words that can be used as a preposition in a prepositional phrase are: about, below, in spite of, regarding, above, beneath, instead of, since, according to, beside, into, through, accros, between, like, throughout, after, beyond, near, to, against, but (meaning except), of, toward, along, by, off, under, amid, concerning, on, underneath, among, down, on account of, until, around, during, onto, up, at, except, out, upon, atop, for, out of, with, because of, from, outside, within, before, in, over, without, inside, and post.
There are many kinds functions of prepositional phrases in English : as modifier of other phrases, as complement of other phrases, and as nominal functions.
The function of prepositional phrases as modifier of other phrases can be appeared in noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. Prepositional phrases as complement of other phrases can complement noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. Prepositional phrases function as nominal function : as a subject, as asubject complement, as a direct object, as an indirect object, as an object complement, and as a prepositional complement.



3.1 As Modifier Of Other Phrases
Functioning as modifier of other phrses is the grammatical function of prepositional phrase in English. Prepositional phrases modify noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases.
(1) The puppy with white fur barked.
(2) The weather in may.
(3) Cheese from france with live bacteria.
The prepositional phrases with white fur barked, in may and with live bacteria modify the NOUN PHRASES The puppy, The weather, Cheese from france.
(4) The carpet is dirty near the door.
The prepositional phrase near the door modifies the ADJECTIVE PHRASE dirty.
(5) The baby was crying during the movie.
(6) He was laughed at by everybody.
(7) She is singing beautifully.
(8) He speaks hapily.
The prepositional phrases during the movie, at by everybody, beautifully and hapily modify the VERB PHRASES was crying, was laughed, is singing and speaks.

3.2 As Complement Of Other Phrases
Functioning of complement other phrases is the grammatical function of function of prepositional prhase in English. Propesitional phrases complement, noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. For example, the following prepositional phrases complement other phrases.
(9) The writer of the novel just arrived.
(10) A thirst for revenge.
(11) An amendment to the constitution.
The prepositional phrases of the novel just arrived, for revenge and to the constitution function as complement of the NOUN PHRASES The writer, A thirst, and An amendment.
(12) The criminal was aware of the consequences.
The prepositional phrase of the consequences functions as complement of the ADJECTIVE PHRASE aware.
(13) He was inisting on staying home.
(14) She will dispose of unwanted items.
(15) Children rely on their parents
The prepositional phrases on staying home, of unwanted items, and their parents function as complement of the VERB PHRASES, was insisting, will dispose and rely.

3.3 As Nominal Function
English prepositions and prepositional phrases can also perfom six nominal functions. Nominal function are grammatical function prototypically performed by nouns, noun-phrases, and naun clauses, prepositional phrase of of location and time most often perform nominal functions. Also note that, althought grammatically possible, prepesitional phrases infrequently function as subjects, subject complemet, direct objects, object complement, indirect object, and prepositional complement. The six nominal functions of prepositiona phrases include examples to illustrate use.

3.3.1 As Subject
A subject is a word, phrase, or clause that performs the action of or acts upon the verb. The following examples of prepositional phrase as a subject:
(16) Behind the shed needs moving.
(17) Before ten is a bad time to call me.
(18) Under therefrigator is disgusting.
The prepositional phrases behind the shed, before ten and under the refrigator function as a subject of those sentences.

3.3.2 As Subject Complement
As a subject compeement is a word, phrase or clasue that follows a copular verb and describe the subject. The following examples of prepositional phrases as subject complemet.
(19) The most magical time of night is after midnight.
(20) My least favorite part of the workday is during the afternoon.
The prepositional phrases of night and of the workday function as subject complements of The most magical time and My least favorite part.

3.3.3 As Direct Object
A direct object is a word, phrase, or clause that receives the action of a transitive verb. The following examples of preposition at phrase as a subject complement.
(21) We must clean under te bed.
(22) My mother screbbed behind the freezer.
(23) My mother will decorate on top of the roof.
The prepositional phrases under the bed, behind the freezer, and on top of the roof function as direct objects that receive the action of transitive verb clean, scrubbed, and decorate.

3.3.4 As Object Complement
An object complement is a word, phrase or clause thet follows and describes the direct object. The following examples of preposition at phrase as object complement.
(24) The four guides announced the most dangerous place to swim along the southern shore.
(25) I dectare my favorite time of the year during the fall.
(26) The reviewer named the most arganized classroom in the english building.
The preposition phrases to swim along the southern shore, of the year during the fall and in the english building function as object complements that describe the direct object the most dangerous place, my favorite time, and the most arganized classroom.

3.3.5 As Indirect Object
An indirect object is a word, phrase or clause that includes to or for whom or what the action of a transitive verb is performed. The following examples of preposition at phrase as indirect object.
(27) My brother shuold give under his bed some thought.
(28) My mother gives behind the freezer a good scrubbing.
The prepositional phrases under his bed and behind the freezer function as indirect objects that receive the action of transitive verb give and gives.

3.3.6 As Prepositional Complemet
A prepositional complement is aword, phrase or clause that follows a preposition to complete the meaning of a prepositional phrase. The following examples of preposition at phrase as prepositional complement.
(29) My friends always nose around in my bedroom.
(30) She mused about under our beds.
(31) The secret agent is spying on inside the boardroom.
The prepositions around, about, and on complete the meaning of prepositional phrases in my bedroom, under our beds, and inside the boardroom.



CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1 Conclusion
Base on data in chapter III, the writer can take the conclusion tha the prepositional phrases perform some main grammatical functions in English. It may function as a modifier others phrases (noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases) and as a complement others phrases other phrases, like noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. It also may function as nominals; as a subject, as a complement, as a direct object, as a direct complement, and as a prepositional complement. This study has been discussed. So that, the some grammatical functions of prepositional phrase can stiil be attempted.
However, this thesis is hoped that is brief scientific work may be of some us for Engllish leaners as good as English users. Especially for those who interested in attempting researcher concerning in grammatical aspect.

4.2 Suggestion
First of all, the writer suggets that the learners especially learners of english, know what the prepositional phrase is and the function of prepositional phrase in English is. So thet, they can make a good communication and a good writing in Englsh by using the best sentences. The writer also suggests thet the others students or learners are interested to analyse this topic from different point of view in order to get a good description and a clearer explanation of the analysis of prepositional phrase in English.
The writer is aware that she is not a perfect person on accunt of her limited knowledge and experience in writing thesis. So that, writer suggest to the reader to give her a good criticism that can improve this thesis.


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BA, Kardjio. The Most Contemporary of English Grammar and Correspondence. First published. Jakarta Pusat: PT Pijar Fandra Gemilang.
Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English A Practical Reference Guide. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Murdibjono & Murdibjono, Arwijati. 1990. Suplemen Bahasa Inggris. Malang: IKIP Malang.
,http://donnayoung.org/English/grammar/prepositions.htm
,http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/preposition_and_postposition
,http://www.thefreelibrary.com/the+Function+of+Prepositional+Phrases+in+English-a01073970905
,http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/46995.aspx
,http://www.suite101.com/content/prepositions-in-the-english-language-a98263

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