First of all, lets thanks to god (Allah SWT), because of God, the writers have done their subject Assignment, Prose, with the title “The Oldman & The Sea & Lady Chatterlay’s Lover Novels“. Then thanks to the lecturer Mrs. Asridayani, S.S and friends that give them support and helping to finish the assignment.
The writers know that this assignment is not perfect. So, the writers very hope to reader to give them some good critic or some good advice. Then, writers hope there are advantages of this writing.
Muara Bungo, May 2011
THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA NOVEL 3
a. Plot Summary 3
b. Character Analysis 9
LADY CHATTERLEY’S LOVER NOVEL 10
a. Summary 10
b. Main Character 12
THE OLDMAN AND THE SEA
The Old Man and the Sea is a story by Ernest Hemingway, written in Cuba in 1951 and published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction to be produced by Hemingway and published in his lifetime. One of his most famous works, it centers upon Santiago, an aging Cuban fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream.
A. PLOT SUMMARY
The Old Man and the Sea tells an epic battle between an old, experienced fisherman and a giant marlin. Eighty-four days pass and still Santiago has not caught a fish in the familiar waters of the Gulf of Mexico north of his seacoast village in Cuba. Has old age robbed him of his once-great skill? Is he just having bad luck? Will his scarred hands ever again pull in a prize catch?
His boat is empty not only of fish but also of his friend, Manolin. Santiago had taught the boy to fish, beginning when the boy was just five. He showed Manolin all the subtleties of the art, and Manolin was deeply grateful. More than that, he loved the old man. Often, he would take food to Santiago, and they would talk baseball, usually discussing the exploits of the great Yankee center fielder, Joe DiMaggio, who played magnificently even when bothered by a physical ailment. (DiMaggio was operated on in 1947 to remove a bone spur from the heel of his left foot. He also developed a bone spur in his right foot and sometimes dislocated his shoulder during games.) Whenever Santiago went out to fish, Manolin would go with him, happily and excitedly. But after the first 40 days of Santiago’s 84-day slump, the boy’s parents ordered him to go out with one of the other fishing boats; Santiago was bad luck, a defeated old man.
So Santiago–sun-wrinkled and gaunt–would go out alone, in his single-masted skiff, to catch wind and, eventually, a great fish. But Manolin was always there in the morning to help him load his gear and in the evening to greet him and help him unload.
During the night before the 85th day, Santiago, sleeping in his dirt-floor hovel, dreams of Africa, which he had once visited while, serving on a ship. In his dream, he sees native boats, hears the roar of the surf, and watches young lions frolicking on the beach. The lions seem to represent Santiago’s youth, in all of its feral vigor. In the morning, before sunrise, Manolin helps him load his gear as usual and gives him small fish to use as bait. Then the old man rides the wind and the waves into deep water, beyond the pale of his earlier expeditions.
He catches a small tuna and thinks perhaps it is an omen of good fortune. Later, he feels a strong pull on his line, suggesting that a great fish, a marlin, is on the other end. The fish nibbles, then nibbles again. Finally, it bites down and the war is on. The marlin hauls the skiff effortlessly through the Gulf waters while Santiago lets out the line when necessary, then holds fast to it, sometimes wrapping it around his shoulders. The give and take goes on and on. Santiago’s left hand cramps up, but he is determined to stay with the fish, which he respects as a worthy opponent even though he has only the tuna and his water bottle to sustain him. As the sun sets, the fish heads farther out to sea.
When it finally surfaces, Santiago beholds the fish, a gigantic marlin that is longer than his boat. The struggle reminds the old man of an arm-wrestling match he won; it lasted through an entire day and night. He eats part of the tuna he caught, wraps the line around himself, and sleeps awhile, dreaming of Africa and those lions on the beach. But the sleep is brief, a mere wink of his heavy eyelids.
The struggle goes on all through the next day and night and into the following day. Santiago’s body aches, and his raw hands sting under the tug of the hot, slicing rope. He thinks often of the great DiMaggio, who played frequently in pain. If DiMaggio could succeed under the stress of suffering, why couldn't Santiago? And then comes a hopeful sign: The marlin, which has been traveling northwest, slows and turns eastward, riding a current. He is tired. The end is near. When the big fish swims close to the boat, Santiago harpoons it; the fight is over.
After lashing the fish’s head and tail to the back and front of his boat, Santiago heads for home, toward the glow of the Havana lights. However, the blood from the harpoon wound attracts a shark. Santiago kills it with the harpoon, but is unable to retrieve his weapon. There will be more sharks, he knows, so he ties a knife to an oar and waits. When the sharks eventually arrive--in a brutal hungry horde--he stabs some of them and clubs others with his tiller. But there are too many, and they eat away all of the flesh, leaving only the head, the tail, and the skeleton. Santiago has won, and he has lost.
After arriving onshore in the morning, he drags his aching body across the beach, bearing the mast on his back and collapsing under its weight--then picking himself up, and the mast, and completing the journey to his home, where he falls into bed. While he sleeps, fishermen gather and stand in awe at the size of the fish, at 18 feet the largest seen in local waters. Manolin, who has been terribly worried about the old man, is happy to find him home and in bed. When Santiago awakes, they have coffee and discuss baseball. Manolin informs Santiago that a villager, Pedrico, is taking care of the old man's boat and fishing equipment. Appreciative, Santiago tells the youth to give Predict the head of the marlin to slice up and use as fish bait. Manolin says he will get Santiago some food and some medicine to treat his injured hands. Later, they agree to become partners again, and that afternoon Santiago falls asleep again and dreams of two young lions.
B. CHARACTER ANALYSIS
Santiago is a proud old Cuban fisherman. He knows well the sea and its creatures and is expert in his trade. But he has a long slump in which he fails to catch a single fish. There is talk that he is no longer up to the task of deep-sea fishing. However, he refuses to yield to old age and bad luck and continues to go out in his skiff, if only to prove that he can still reel in a big one. Santiago, a Spanish name, means St. James in English.
Santiago is an aged Cuban man, a skilled fisherman by profession. His neck is wrinkled from the sun, and his hands bear the scars of many fishing battles; only his blue eyes remain bright and cheerful. By personality, Santiago is brave, confident, cheerful, determined, and optimistic, not letting anything in life rattle him. Even when he does not catch a single fish for eighty-four days, he refuses to be discouraged. He has had streaks of bad luck in the past, and he is hopeful that the next day will bring him better luck. In fact, he makes up his mind to go far out to sea and try his luck, optimistic that he may catch a really large fish.
Santiago is alone in the world; his wife has passed away, and he refuses to have a photograph of her in his hut, for it makes him feel lonely. His constant companion has been Manolin, a young boy that he has tutored in the ways of fishing and the sea since he was a small lad of five. The boy is devoted to the old man, bringing him coffee and making sure that he has something to eat; he also helps him with his fishing gear. Unfortunately, Manolin’s parents have forbidden the boy to go out on the boat with Santiago any longer. After not catching fish for forty-four days, they have decided the old man is bad, and they do not want it to rub off on their son. Santiago misses Manolin’s company, for he thinks of the boy as a son.
Santiago is an expert fisherman, skilled and meticulous. He makes careful preparations for each outing on his boat and is always prepared when he makes a catch. He is in tune with the natural environment, watching the weather, the currents, birds, and fish to help him know the best spot for fishing. He wisely drops his bait at different depths, hoping to land a catch with variety. During his career, Santiago has caught many trophy fish, some of them weighing over one thousand pounds. Before the giant marlin, however, he has always had someone on the boat to help him with his catch. When he is battling the marlin and the sharks, he thinks of Manolin several times and wishes the boy were on the boat with him to help.
Physically, Santiago is a tough man. When he was younger, he would arm wrestle for sport and always win. One time, a match lasted for more than twenty-four hours, and even though his hands were bleeding, he refused to give up. He finally won the match and was called the champion. This basic sense of determination is what makes him continue to fight the giant fish for three long and grueling days. Even though his hands ache, cramp, and bleed and his shoulders burn with pain, he will not slacken the line or let the fish defeat him. In fact, he is the perfect representative of Hemingway’s Code Hero, a man who fights to the end no matter the odds and who displays great grace and courage during the battle.
Despite his great strength and abilities, Santiago is a humble man. He lives in poverty, owning a small shack with no running water; yet he never complains. When things do not go his way, he does not blame outside sources, but looks for the cause within himself. He even says that he has probably not caught a fish in eighty-four days because he has not gone out far enough on to the sea. When his giant fish is eaten by the sharks, he blames himself for not fighting harder and not bringing better weapons with him on the journey. He even worries that perhaps he has killed the giant marlin out of pride and apologizes to it.
Although Santiago is not an extremely religious man, he is a Christian. A picture of Jesus and the Virgin hang in his hut. He also prays to God for help several times during his three-day ordeal and promises to say his Our Fathers and Hail Marys in appreciation for any assistance that he receives. More importantly, Santiago is Christ-like, constantly displaying the Christian virtues of love, kindness, patience, and humility. Throughout the novel, Hemingway depicts the old man as a Christ figure. At the end of his journey, he feels shame and humiliation, much like Christ before his crucifixion. When he arrives home, he carries his mast across his shoulders, much like Christ carried his cross. When he finally lays down to sleep, his arms are stretched out straight, his palms are turned up, and his hands are bleeding, much like the image of Christ on the cross. Of course, Jesus’ followers were largely fishermen, just like Santiago, and Christ bade them to become fishers of men. In the novel, Santiago is not just a fisherman, but an example of Christian caring to Manolin and a symbol of grace under pressure to all who read about him.
Manolin is an Adolescent who loves the old man and never loses his faith in him. Manolin is a young teenage boy who serves as the son Santiago has never had. He looks up to Santiago as a teacher, a father figure, and a hero; he believes in the old man’s fishing abilities and enjoys his company. He is also Santiago’s friend and protector. At the young age of five, Manolin began fishing with Santiago, helping him with the gear and learning everything the fisherman could teach him. He learned a lot and is now a successful fisherman by his own rights. Because of the old man’s bad luck, Manolin is no longer allowed to fish on Santiago’s boat, but he still attends to the old man’s needs on a daily basis. He brings him coffee, provides him food, and helps him with his fishing gear. Manolin feels this is the least he can do for his comrade and the man who has taught him most of what he knows.
When Santiago does not return from his fishing expedition for three days, Manolin is very worried. He goes to the hut each morning to see if the old man is back, and he is probably the one responsible for the Coast Guard search. When he finally finds Santiago sleeping in his hut, he cares for him like a father would a child. He brings him hot coffee to drink and food to eat. He promises to take care of the boat repairs and buy the old man a new knife. He also tells Santiago that they will fish together again, as soon as the old man recovers from his ordeal; Manolin no longer cares what his own parents say, for he views Santiago as his "real" parent and teacher. Because of the bond between them, Santiago gives Manolin the only thing worth saving from the skeleton of the giant fish - the sword. It is a treasure to Manolin, proof of the strength, ability, and dignity of his good friend.
Though this character does not physically appear in the novel, he repeatedly serves as an inspiration to Santiago. The old man loves baseball and the Yankees in particular. He can hardly wait to see the newspaper each day and see how the Yankees have fared. Santiago believes that the hero of the Yankee team is Joe DiMaggio, an inspiration to his teammates and to the old man. DiMaggio suffers from a painful bone spur in his foot, but he does not let it bother him or stand in the way of his being a marvelous baseball player. Throughout Santiago’s arduous journey, he thinks about Joe DiMaggio and feels that if his hero can play baseball with great pain, he can certainly endure the pain of his battle with the giant marlin. When Santiago finally masters and kills the fish, he feels certain that DiMaggio would be proud of him.
4. Manolin's Father
Manolin's Father is a man who forbids his son to continue fishing with Santiago after the first forty days of the old man's slump. He thinks Santiago is washed up.
Martin is a Cafe owner who gives Manolin food and drink to take to Santiago.
Regelio is a villager who sometimes helps Santiago with his fishing gear.
Pedrico is a villager who also helps Santiago with his gear. Santiago gives him the head of the fish.
Pericois a man who provides Santiago newspapers so he can check baseball scores.
Tourist is a woman who thinks the remains of the marlin caught by Santiago are those of a shark.
LADY CHATTERLEY’S LOVER
Lady Chatterley's Lover is a novel by D. H. Lawrence, first published in 1928. The first edition was printed in Florence, Italy; it could not be published openly in the United Kingdom until 1960. (A private edition was issued by Inky Stephensen's Mandrake Press in 1929). The book soon became notorious for its story of the physical relationship between a working-class man and anaristocratic woman, its explicit descriptions of sex, and its use of (at the time) unprintable words.
The story is said to have originated from events in Lawrence's own unhappy domestic life, and he took inspiration for the settings of the book from Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, where he grew up. According to some critics, the fling of Lady Ottoline Morrell with "Tiger", a young stonemason who came to carve plinths for her garden statues, also influenced the story. Lawrence at one time considered calling the novel Tenderness and made significant alterations to the text and story in the process of its composition. It has been published in three different versions.
Lady Chatterley's Lover begins by introducing Connie Reid, the female protagonist of the novel. She was raised as a cultured bohemian of the upper-middle class, and was introduced to love affairs--intellectual and sexual liaisons--as a teenager. In 1917, at 23, she marries Clifford Chatterley, the scion of an aristocratic line. After a month's honeymoon, he is sent to war, and returns paralyzed from the waist down, impotent.
After the war, Clifford becomes a successful writer, and many intellectuals flock to the Chatterley mansion, Wragby. Connie feels isolated; the vaunted intellectuals prove empty and bloodless, and she resorts to a brief and dissatisfying affair with a visiting playwright, Michaelis. Connie longs for real human contact, and falls into despair, as all men seem scared of true feelings and true passion. There is a growing distance between Connie and Clifford, who has retreated into the meaningless pursuit of success in his writing and in his obsession with coal-mining, and towards whom Connie feels a deep physical aversion. A nurse, Mrs. Bolton, is hired to take care of the handicapped Clifford so that Connie can be more independent, and Clifford falls into a deep dependence on the nurse, his manhood fading into an infantile reliance.
Into the void of Connie's life comes Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on Clifford's estate, newly returned from serving in the army. Mellors is aloof and derisive, and yet Connie feels curiously drawn to him by his innate nobility and grace, his purposeful isolation, his undercurrents of natural sensuality. After several chance meetings in which Mellors keeps her at arm's length, reminding her of the class distance between them, they meet by chance at a hut in the forest, where they have sex. This happens on several occasions, but still Connie feels a distance between them, remaining profoundly separate from him despite their physical closeness.
One day, Connie and Mellors meet by coincidence in the woods, and they have sex on the forest floor. This time, they experience simultaneous orgasms. This is a revelatory and profoundly moving experience for Connie; she begins to adore Mellors, feeling that they have connected on some deep sensual level. She is proud to believe that she is pregnant with Mellors' child: he is a real, "living" man, as opposed to the emotionally-dead intellectuals and the dehumanized industrial workers. They grow progressively closer, connecting on a primordial physical level, as woman and man rather than as two minds or intellects.
Connie goes away to Venice for a vacation. While she is gone, Mellors' old wife returns, causing a scandal. Connie returns to find that Mellors has been fired as a result of the negative rumors spread about him by his resentful wife, against whom he has initiated divorce proceedings. Connie admits to Clifford that she is pregnant with Mellors' baby, but Clifford refuses to give her a divorce. The novel ends with Mellors working on a farm, waiting for his divorce, leaving Connie,preparing something special for Connie and Connie living with her sister, leaving Clifford, deciding to marry Mellors also waiting: the hope exists that, in the end, they will be together.
B. MAIN CHARACTERS
1. Lady Chatterley
Lady Chatterley is the protagonist of the novel. Before her marriage, she is simply Constance Reid, an intellectual and social progressive from a Scottish bourgeois family, the daughter of Sir Malcolm and the sister of Hilda. When she marries Clifford Chatterley, a minor nobleman, Constance (or, as she is known throughout the novel, Connie) assumes his title, becoming Lady Chatterley. Lady Chatterley's Lover chronicles Connie's maturation as a woman and as a sensual being. She comes to despise her weak, ineffectual husband, and to love Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on her husband's estate. In the process of leaving her husband and conceiving a child with Mellors, Lady Chatterley moves from the heartless, bloodless world of the intelligentsia and aristocracy into a vital and profound connection rooted in sensuality and sexual fulfillment.
2. Oliver Mellors
Oliver Mellors is the lover in the novel's title. Mellors is the gamekeeper on Clifford Chatterley's estate, Wragby Hall. He is aloof, sarcastic, intelligent and noble. He was born near Wragby, and worked as a blacksmith until he ran off to the army to escape an unhappy marriage. In the army, he rose to become a commissioned lieutenant — an unusual position for a member of the working classes — but was forced to leave the army because of a case of pneumonia, which left him in poor health. Surprisingly, we learn from different characters' accounts that Mellors was in fact finely educated in his childhood, has good table manners, is an extensive reader, and can speak English 'like a gentleman', but chooses to behave like a commoner and speak broad Derbyshire dialect, probably in an attempt to fit into his own community. Disappointed by a string of unfulfilling love affairs, Mellors lives in quiet isolation, from which he is redeemed by his relationship with Connie: the passion unleashed by their lovemaking forges a profound bond between them. At the end of the novel, Mellors is fired from his job as gamekeeper and works as a laborer on a farm, waiting for a divorce from his old wife so he can marry Connie. Mellors is a man with an innate nobility but who remains impervious to the pettiness and emptiness of conventional society, with access to a primal flame of passion and sensuality.
3. Clifford Chatterley
Clifford Chatterley is Connie's husband. Clifford Chatterley is a young, handsome baronet who becomes paralyzed from the waist down during World War I. As a result of his injury, Clifford is impotent. He retires to his familial estate, Wragby Hall, where he becomes first a successful writer, and then a powerful businessman. But the gap between him and Connie grows ever wider; obsessed with financial success and fame, he is not truly interested in love, and she feels that he has become passionless and empty. He turns for solace to his nurse and companion, Mrs. Bolton, who worships him as a nobleman even as she despises him for his casual arrogance. Clifford is portrayed as a weak, vain man, displaying a patronising attitude toward his supposed inferiors. He soullessly pursues money and fame through industry and the meaningless manipulation of words. His impotence is symbolic of his failings as a strong, sensual man, and could also represent the increasing loss of importance and influence of the ruling classes in a modern world.
4. Mrs. Bolton
Mrs. Bolton is also known as Ivy Bolton, is Clifford's nurse and caretaker. She is a competent, still-attractive middle-aged woman. Years before the action in this novel, her husband died in an accident in the mines owned by Clifford's family. Even as Mrs. Bolton resents Clifford as the owner of the mines — and, in a sense, the murderer of her husband — she still maintains a worshipful attitude towards him as the representative of the upper class. Her relationship with Clifford - she simultaneously adores and despises him, while he depends and looks down on her - is probably one of the most complex relationships in the novel.
Michaelis is a successful Irish playwright with whom Connie has an affair early in the novel. Michaelis asks Connie to marry him, but she decides not to, realising that he is like all other intellectuals: a slave to success, a purveyor of vain ideas and empty words, passionless.
6. Hilda Reid
Hilda Reid is Connie's older sister by two years, the daughter of Sir Malcolm. Hilda shared Connie's cultured upbringing and intellectual education. She remains unliberated by the raw sensuality that changed Connie's life. She disdains Connie's lover, Mellors, as a member of the lower classes, but in the end she helps Connie to leave Clifford.
7. Sir Malcolm Reid
Sir Malcolm Reid is the father of Connie and Hilda. He is an acclaimed painter, an aesthete and a bohemian who despises Clifford for his weakness and impotence, and who immediately warms to Mellors.
8. Tommy Dukes
Tommy Dukes is one of Clifford's contemporaries, is a brigadier general in the British Army and a clever and progressive intellectual. Lawrence intimates, however, that Dukes is a representative of all intellectuals: all talk and no action. Dukes speaks of the importance of sensuality, but he himself is incapable of sensuality and uninterested in sex. Of Clifford's circle of friends, he is the one who Connie becomes closest to.
9. Duncan Forbes
Duncan Forbes is an artist friend of Connie and Hilda. Forbes paints abstract canvases, a form of art Mellors seems to despise. He once loved Connie, and Connie originally claims to be pregnant with his child.
10. Bertha Coutts
Bertha Coutts, although never actually appearing in the novel, has her presence felt. She is Mellors' wife, separated from him but not divorced. Their marriage faltered because of their sexual incompatibility: she was too rapacious, not tender enough. She returns at the end of the novel to spread rumors about Mellors' infidelity to her, and helps get him fired from his position as gamekeeper. As the novel concludes, Mellors is in the process of divorcing her.